Books and E-Books
On Muslim History and Civilization

The center text reads "There is no deity except Allah, He is the one and only, He has no partner." The text around the circumference reads "Muhammed the Massenger of Allah, sent him with guidance and true religion to make it victorius over all (other) religions."
Obverse: The center text reads "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah with the name of the King Offa Rex written upside down within that text." The text around the circumference reads "In the name of Allah. This (coin) was minted in 157 A.H." (157 A.H. corresponds to 773-774 C.E.).

The coin shown in the image was minted by the Anglo-Saxon King Offa Rex (757-796 C.E.). It was discovered in 1841 C.E., and is displayed in the British Museum. This coin is an imitation of Muslim dinar in circulation during the eighth century.

Before England was united, the Anglo-Saxon King Offa Rex ruled the area called Mercia (Middle England). Offa made important pacts with Charlemagne and Pope Adrian the First. Offa’s daughters married the rulers of Wessex and Saxon which facilitated strong relations between these areas.

Al-Kalby is of the opinion that King Offa became a Muslim. He suggests that Offa may have gone to Spain to study the religion or the culture of Muslims and may have become impressed by the Muslim civilization and its grandeur (Quotations on Moorish Civilization). As a result, he may have accepted Islam by his own choice. King Offa did not conclude any peace treaty or a trade treaty with either Islamic Spain (Andalusia) or with Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.

About twenty years before King Offa established his kingdom, Gothic Princess Sara married 'Isa ibn Muzahim, one of the Muslims at caliph Hisham's court in Damascus and returned to Seville with her husband. Sara was the granddaughter of Witiza, penultimate king of the Visigoths. The achievements made during the reign of Sultan Abdur-Rahman, the 'Falcon of Andalus' (755-788) are well documented and this period marks the beginning of Moorish civilization. It is about the same period when King Offa ruled Mercia. Martin Hume in 'Spainish People' writes that Sultan Abdur-Rahman was one of the Heaven-sent rulers of men, his domain was the best organized in Europe, and his capital the most splendid in the world.

The Muslim creed inscribed on this coin minted by King Offa raises a great difficulty for those people who try to explain away these coins using a variety of arguments while pretending that Muslims did not exist in Spain, let alone rule it with grandeur better than any in Europe.  [A Chronology of Muslims in Andalusia].


Gothic Princess Sara
Abdur-Rahman I: The Falcon of Andalus
Orientalism, Misinformation and Islam
Refutation of Christian Polemics
Answering ...
History in the Service of Imperialism
Quotations on Moorish (Islamic Civilization)
Quotations on Islamic Civilization
Muslim Coins
Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization
Biography of Prophet Muhammad
Introducing Islam
Sir Isaac Newton on the Bible


Allah: Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the Arab Christians and Jews for the God (Eloh-im in Hebrew; 'Allaha' in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus, pbuh). The word Allah does not have a plural or gender. Allah does not have any associates or partners, and He does not beget nor was He begotten.
pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him. This expression is used for all Prophets of Allah.

Copyright © 1997-1999 Dr. A. Zahoor
All Rights Reserved

Portions adopted from "Prophet Muhammad: The Last Messenger In The Bible," by Kais Al-Kalby, 1994.

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