Dr. A. Zahoor
(Copyright 1990, 1998, All Rights Reserved)

Books and E-Books
On Muslim History and Civilization

In the year 10 A.H. (631 CE), Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) received a delegation of sixty Christians from Najran in Medinah. The territory of Najran was located south of Bani Khath’am near Yemen, about 450 miles south of Medinah. They were received in the Prophet’s mosque, and the Prophet allowed them to pray in the mosque, which they did facing East. This group of Christians followed Byzantine rite.

They discussed with the Prophet the points of doctrine including the nature of God, and he replied them by reciting Surah Ikhlas (112) of the Qur’an. It begins with the word ‘Qul’ meaning ‘Say’. The translation of the meaning of the Surah is: 'Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally Besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him'. Further discussion on the nature of Prophet Jesus (pbuh) led to some disagreements, on which he recited them the three Ayats of the Qur’an from Surah Ale-‘Imran (3:59-61). After three days, the Christian delegation decided to conclude its mission.

In spite of doctrinal disagreements, the Prophet concluded a treaty with the people of Najran. The Prophet dictated the terms of the treaty to Abdullah b. Abu Bakr, who served as one of his scribes, and it was witnessed by five companions whose names are: Abu Sufyan b. Harb, Ghilan b. Amr, Malik b. Auf, Aqra' b. Habis, and Mughira b. Shu'ba. The treaty provided religious and administrative autonomy for non-Muslim citizens of the Islamic State. All sincere Muslim rulers have adhered to the founding principles of this treaty in managing the affairs of non-Muslim subjects throughout the centuries.

The major clauses of the Treaty of Najran, translated into English, are as follows.

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Allah: Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the Arab Christians and Jews for the God ('Eloh-im' in Hebrew; 'Allaha' in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus). The word Allah does not have a plural or gender. Allah does not have any associate or partner, and He does not beget nor was He begotten. SWT is an abbreviation of Arabic words that mean 'Glory Be To Him.'
s or pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him. This expression is used for all Prophets of Allah.


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Copyright © 1990, 1998 by Dr. A. Zahoor
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